Monday, March 11, 2013

A Comparison of Learning Management System Accessibility

A Comparison of Learning Management System Accessibility

Learning management systems have become the primary delivery platform in most higher education systems for course-related activities such as lecture presentations, readings and assignments, discussions, and quizzes. Until a few years ago, access for learners and instructors with disabilities was either poorly supported or not considered at all in many popular tools. Due to lack of, or limited, accessibility in learning management systems, students were not able to fully or independently participate in key course activities.

Thanks to the hard work of various LMS accessibility working groups and their vendor and open-source developer partners, many LMS vendors have begun to understand the need for universal usability of their tools. LMS vendors have begun providing accessibility features that allow users with disabilities access, but we are still far from achieving full accessibility of learning management systems.

Although significant progress has been made, intuitive and effective utilization of LMS by users with disabilities is still a future goal. We believe much more needs to be done. For instance, discussion boards need to be made more functionally accessible, built-in authoring tools need to be enhanced so that accessible content is created by default, the authoring process is more intuitive, and the authoring tools themselves become more accessible. On the whole, the accessibility of learning management systems is improving but they still pose significant challenges for users with disabilities.

We have tested and evaluated four major LMS namely Blackboard, Desired2Learn, Moodel, and SAKAI
for accessibility/usability in 2010 and 2012 and published the results in CSUN and Midwest Educause conferences respectively.

We have been observing that LMS vendors have continued to strengthen the accessibility and usability of their systems, while also working to incorporate some of the features suggested in our evaluation. In light of this recent interest and activity, we have revised and enhanced our evaluation criteria based on common features, streamlined our evaluation process, and rescored our LMS systems.

We have presented a high-level overview of the results of our new evaluation, along with side-by-side comparisons that support our recommendations for improving learning management systems for users with disabilities at CSUN 2013.

To learn more about the result, please visit and study the following documents:

  1. A Comparison of Learning Management System Accessibility: Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle, SAKAI (CSUN 2013 PowerPoint file)
  2. A Comparison of Learning Management System Accessibility (full report HTML file)
  3. Comparison data (full testing and evaluation results Excel file)Comparison data (full testing and evaluation results Excel file)
    To utilize the full feature of interlinking between different sheets in this document, you might want to open the file in Microsoft Excel program and not in the browser.

A Model for Accessible LMS Discussion Boards

A Model for Accessible LMS Discussion Boards

We have been testing and evaluating major learning management systems for several years, and while we continue to document significant improvement in many LMS components, we have noted little or no noticeable progress in the accessibility of the discussion board/forum, a tool which remains one of the most complicated and difficult for learners with disabilities to use effectively. In response, we decided to create a rough prototype of a more accessible discussion forum, one that draws on our experience and knowledge as accessibility and instructional technology/design specialists, and uses our collective understanding of how various LMS have approached this component.

Our discussion board model is an outgrowth of our long-range comparative accessibility testing and ongoing evaluation of four major learning management systems—Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Moodle, and SAKAI. Our suggested design attempts to provide solutions for many of the perennial, cumbersome accessibility/usability issues that affect LMS discussion forums, such as organizing and grouping forums, topics, threads, and messages so that all users, including assistive technology users, can easily identify a desired object/location, navigate to it, and interact effectively with it. Here are some of the key questions we considered:

  • What are the best ways to order lists of discussion topics?
  • What level of detail should be evident when the user first encounters a discussion board?
  • How should greater detail and specificity be progressively revealed as the user drills down to deeper threads?
  • What is an optimal amount of information for any given message and how does that message appear in the context of other messages so that the content and place within the overall discussion board or thread are clearly evident?
  • What HTML structures and what scripted interactivity provide a strong user experience without getting in the way of that experience?

We are not promising a drop-in solution, and we cannot claim to provide a perfect implementation. Instead, our presentation first examines how typical LMS discussion boards tend to work from an accessibility perspective. From that vantage point, we then offer design patterns and a rough prototype implementation for others to consider as a more accessible potential alternative. Our hope is that LMS vendors will borrow some of our ideas to improve their own systems’ discussion boards/forums.


I would like to thank and acknowledge the hard work of all my colleagues who helped me with this project; without their help I wouldn't have been able to design and deliver this new model for discussion board. An especial thank to Michael McKelvey who worked on the code until the last minutes of our presentation at CSUN Conference 2013.


  • Hadi Rangin, IT Accessibility & Collaboration coordinator, University of Illinois
  • Michael McKelvey, Coordinator of Engagement Technology & New Media, University of Illinois
  • Marc Thompson, Instructional Designer, University of Illinois
  • Dan Hahn, ELearning Professional, University of Illinois
  • Ken Petri, Program Director, The Ohio State University

Highlights of the Suggested Model

Note: This design is optimized for Firefox and Chrome. We have not worked on cross-browser compatibility yet.
Use NVDA with Firefox to test for screen reader accessibility; do not use Jaws.

  1. Full ARIA landmarks to provide semantic structure
    • Breadcrumbs [navigation landmark]
    • Forum Options [navigation landmark]
    • Search [search landmark]
    • Forum [navigation landmark]
    • Message [region landmark]
  2. ARIA menu for intuitive keyboard navigation in the menu
    • Display, Filter, and Manage menu
    • Enter or space to open the menu
    • Up and down arrow to scroll through the menu
    • Right arrow to open a sub-menu and left arrow to close a sub-menu
    • Enter to select an item in the menu
    • Escape to cancel interaction with the menu
    • Tab key to move from one top menu to another top menu
  3. Select box for selecting the desired forum
    • Up and Down arrow to scroll through the menu
    • Enter to select the desired Forum
    • Selecting a forum updates the Thread treeview
    • NOTE: select list keydown & change events must be modified so simply scrolling through menu does not update thread treeview.
  4. ARIA tree view to browse and select desired thread
    • Up and Down arrow to go through the threads/posts
    • Right arrow to open a thread
    • Left arrow to close a thread
    • Enter selects the desired thread/message and moves the focus to the beginning of the thread conversation shown in the message landmark
  5. HTML headings to structure thread depth
    • Heading levels 2-6 are used structure threads/messages
    • Each post has an ARIA action menu for applicable functions.
    • A Message Display Mode select box to filter threads/posts shown.
  6. Keyboard shortcuts
    • Shortcut key 1 to move to the Forum select box
    • Shortcut key 2 to move the focus to the threads treeview
    • F6 key to switch focus between landmark regions (not implemented)